John Tebbutt (1834 -1916) astronomer
Over the years Tebbutt kept up a remarkable series of patient, reliable observations on comets, occultations of stars by the moon, eclipses and transits of Jupiter’s satellites, variable stars and double stars and the position of minor planets. Although Tebbutt devoted most of his time to astronomy he was president of the Windsor branch of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He was commemorated on the reverse side of the Australian $100 dollar bill.
Tebbutt was born at Windsor, New South Wales, the only son of John Tebbutt, then a prosperous store keeper. His grandfather, John Tebbutt, was one of the early free settlers in Australia; he arrived at Sydney about the end of 1801. Tebbutt was educated first at the Church of England parish school, then at a private school kept by the Rev. Mathew Adam of the local Presbyterian church, and finally at a small but excellent school under the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, where he had a sound training in Latin, Greek, French, and mathematics. His first teacher, Mr Edward Quaife, was interested in astronomy, and in later years encouraged his former pupil in his study of this science.
Tebbutt’s father had retired from store keeping about the year 1843 , purchased a tract of land at the eastern end of the town of Windsor known as the peninsula, and built a residence there. This subsequently became the site of the observatory built by his son, who at 19 years of age had begun his observations of the heavens with an ordinary marine telescope and a sextant.
About nine years later, on 13 May 1861, Tebbutt discovered the 1861 comet, one of the most brilliant comets known. There was no means then of telegraphing the intelligence to England where it became visible on 29 June. Tebbutt was acknowledged as the first discoverer of this comet, and the first computer of its approximate orbit. In November 1861 he purchased an excellent refracting telescope of 3.25-inch (0.083 m) aperture and 48-inch (1.2 m) focal length, and in 1862 on the resignation of the Rev. W. Scott he was offered the position of government astronomer for New South Wales but refused it.
In 1864 he built, with his own hands, a small observatory close to his father’s residence, and installed his instruments consisting of his 3¼-inch telescope, a two-inch transit instrument, and an eight day half-seconds box-chronometer. Shortly before this period Tebbutt had begun to record meteorological observations, and in 1868 published these for the years 1863 to 1866 under the title Meteorological Observations made at the Private Observatory of John Tebbutt, Jnr.
He continued the publication of these records at intervals for more than 30 years. He had also begun a long series of papers which were published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society of London, in the Astronomical Register, London, and in the Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. He contributed to other scientific journals, and made an immense number of contributions to the Australian press.
In 1872 a 4.5-inch (0.11 m) equatorial refracting scope was purchased for the observatory, in 1881 Tebbutt discovered another great comet, and in 1886 a new telescope of 8-inch (200 mm) aperture and 115-inch (2.9 m) focal length was purchased, which enabled him to considerably extend his operations. He published in 1887 History and Description of Mr Tebbutt’s Observatory, and followed this with a yearly Report for about 15 years.
A branch of the British Astronomical Society was established at Sydney in 1895 and Tebbutt was elected its first president. In 1904 in his seventieth year he discontinued systematic work, though he retained his interest in astronomy and continued to do some observing, and in the following year the Royal Astronomical Society of London recognised his work by awarding him the Jackson-Gwilt Medal of the society.
In 1908, Tebbutt published his Astronomical Memoirs, giving an account of his 54 years’ work, and he was much gratified in 1914, during the visit of the British association, by a visit to his observatory of a small party of astronomers. He died at Windsor on 29 November 1916.
For a while he was commemorated on the reverse side of the Australian $100 dollar bill (which now bears, instead, the portrait of Sir John Monash).
The $100 paper note
John Tebbutt (1834–1916) was a pioneer astronomer who helped to lay the foundations for Australia’s involvement in astronomy with the discovery of major comets. Tebbutt’s portrait is thus set against representations of his observatory at Windsor, New South Wales, and elements to symbolise the sky and comets.
A member of the Philosophical (Royal) Society of New South Wales from 1862, Tebbutt won a silver medal at the 1867 Paris Universal Exhibition for his paper ‘On the Progress and Present State of Astronomical Science in New South Wales’, published in Sydney in 1871. In 1873 he became a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, London, and in 1905 was awarded its Hannah Jackson, née Gwilt, gift and bronze medal; in 1895 he was first president of the New South Wales branch of the British Astronomical Association. In his Astronomical Memoirs (Sydney, 1908) Tebbutt listed his 371 publications in various learned journals, including 120 in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and 148 in the Astronomische Nachrichten. He never left Australia but he taught himself to read French and German, corresponded with international colleagues and acquired a large astronomical library. When the British Association for the Advancement of Science met in Sydney in 1914 the astronomers visited him at Windsor.
Although Tebbutt devoted most of his time to astronomy he was president of the Windsor branch of the British and Foreign Bible Society; in 1877 he asked Sir Henry Parkes for leniency towards settlers in paying their government land dues.
Complete article : http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A060268b.htm
Influential Australian Christians depicted on Australian notes and coins
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